咨詢熱線 :0951-8936555
當前位置:英皇>> 留學考試 >>托福考試 >> 正文

托福閱讀文章的段間關系:總分+并列

發布日期:2020-10-20 閱讀量:176

  把握段與段之間的關系對于理解托福閱讀文章十分重要,在比對段落關系時,和比較句子關系類似,要從段落最主要的意思方面來判斷。為了通俗易懂,段間關系可分為總分關系(句子之間稱為概述與詳述或抽象與具體關系)和并列關系。下面小編就分別從這兩種關系出發,給大家詳細分析托福閱讀文章的段間關系。

  托福閱讀文章的段間關系:總分關系

  上下兩段意思方面相同,相比之下,上一個段落主要內容比下一個段落更具有概括性。

  Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea. The fossil consists of a complete skull of an archaeocyte, an extinct group of an-cestors of modern cetaceans. Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like but its jawbones lack the enlarged space that is filled with fat or oil and used for receiving underwater sound in modern whales. Pakicetus probably detected sound through the ear opening as in land mammals. The skull also lacks a blowhole, another cetacean adaptation for diving. Other features, however, show experts that Pakicetus is a transitional form between a group of extinct flesh-eating mammals, the mesonychids, and cetaceans. It has been suggested that Pakicetus fed on fish in shallow water and was not yet adapted for life in the open ocean. It probably bred and gave birth on land.

  解析:

  注意:以下分析僅從段落層面角度來看,后文將置于篇章層面來看會出現變化。

  段1中

  首句最具有概述性,并提出:許多令人興奮的發現允許科學家重建最可能的鯨的起源。 其他句子為對P化石發現的背景介紹。

  段2中

  第二句為為本段最概述性內容,表明P化石給鯨魚起源提供許多寶貴細節。 其他句子相對第二句均為細節性內容。

  段1與段2比較,段1更具有概括性。因此兩端中TS在段1中,段2第二句為概述性細節MaD,其余句子均為詳述性細節(未進一步分層次)。

  托福閱讀文章的段間關系:并列關系

  上下兩段意思方面不同。

  Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. Several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethys Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hind leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foot-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs. An even more exciting find was reported in 1994, also from Pakistan. The now extinct whale Ambulocetus natans ("the walking whale that swam") lived in the Tethys Sea 49 million years ago. It lived around 3 million years after Pakicetus but 9 million before Basilosaurus. The fossil luckily includes a good portion of the hind legs. The legs were strong and ended in long feet very much like those of a modern pinniped. The legs were certainly functional both on land and at sea. The whale retained a tail and lacked a fluke, the major means of locomotion in modern cetaceans.The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing. The large hind legs were used for propulsion in water. On land, where it probably bred and gave birth, Ambulocetus may have moved around very much like a modern sea lion. It was undoubtedly a whale that linked life on land with life at sea.

  解析:

  段1中

  末句最具概述性,并提出:B毫無疑問是完全海生的鯨并有不起作用或退化了的后腿。

  段2中

  末句最具概述性,并提出:A毫無疑問是連接陸地和海洋生命的鯨。

  段1與段2意思方面不同,為并列關系。

  以上就是小編給大家分享的托福閱讀文章的段間關系:總分+并列的全部內容。

    微信搜索1625515892添加小編,回復:考試資料/留學資料成為好友,不僅為你答疑留學和考試疑問,你還能第一時間獲得小編整理的一手留學考試資料。想要留學和考試資料大禮包?找小編,沒錯的!(微信號:1625515892)

分享到:

寧公網安64010402000440號

今晚有哪四肖中特 乐投官方网站-点击进入 河南快赢481投资技巧 足彩混合过关只中了一个怎么算 新疆11选5现场开奖结果 狗狗币收益 欢乐升级扣牌后反 福彩广西快乐双彩开奖结果查询结果 上海快三开今天结果 体彩p5走势综合版 三分彩走势图 足彩比分直播500完整 狗币 价格 我爱玩山西麻将官网 3d开奖分布图 深圳风采中奖规则开奖 快乐10分开奖查询