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托福聽力科學美國人60秒——古代女性臂力驚人

發布日期:2020-7-20 閱讀量:441

 想象一下女子水手隊。平均每周訓練18個小時,游泳75英里,這些運動員肌肉發達。但是,和史前女農民相比,這些運動員可以說沒有什么臂力。小編就給大家介紹一下托福聽力科學美國人60秒——古代女性臂力驚人。

  This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'mKaren Hopkin.

  Picture a women's crew team. Training 18 hours andcovering 75 miles in an average week, theseathletes are pretty ripped. Yet they don't hold abicep to prehistoric female farmers. Because a newstudy shows that, based on upper arm strength, theNeolithic ladies leave modern women—even elite athletes—in the dust. The work appears in thejournal Science Advances.

  The study's researchers had previously examined the bones of prehistoric men. Becausebones adapt to the load they bear, they can provide a record of the sort of activities in whichan individual regularly engages. So, at the dawn of agriculture, men's leg bones were strong, like today's cross-country runners. But by the late Iron Age, their leg bones looked more likethat of the average couch potato.

  "So this kind of matched with declines in mobility as people became more sedentary throughtime."

  Alison Macintosh, who did that work when she was an undergraduate student in archaeologyat the University of Cambridge.

  "But we didn't see these drops in women. Their leg bone strength was consistently lower thanmen's, it didn't change significantly through time. So really the women just looked quitesedentary pretty much right from the get-go. And we didn't think that was very probablynecessarily a very accurate representation of what they had been doing."


女性槳手.jpg

 

  Now, it could be that prehistoric housewives sat around and lunched their way through theNeolithic. But Macintosh thought that unlikely. Instead, she and her colleagues figured that thebones of men and women react differently under pressure. So Macintosh, now a postdoctoralfellow with the same group, decided to look at the limbs of some ladies.

  She recruited 18 championship rowers, 11 soccer players, 17 runners and 37 somewhat lesssporty undergrads. And she scanned their upper arms and lower legs. What she found is thatthe leg bone strength of prehistoric women was as variable as that of her living subjects, running the gamut from those who run marathons to those who engage in marathon studysessions. But the arms were a different story.

  "We found that prehistoric women had stronger arm bones on average than most livingwomen. That was pretty consistent through the first 5,500 years of farming or so. So this waseven stronger than the arm bones of the rowers. So for example women in the earliest timeperiod that we looked at, which is the early Neolithic period about 7,000 years ago, they hadarm bones that were 30 percent stronger than non-athletes today, so just recreationally activewomen in Cambridge. And they're about 16 percent stronger bones than those of the livingrowers."

  That power most likely came from tilling the soil, harvesting crops, and spending hours a daymilling grain to make flour with a stone-age mortar and pestle. The findings shed light on thedaily duties of our female ancestors—manual labor that was a total grind.

  Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.

  這里是科學美國人——60秒科學。我是凱倫·霍普金。

  想象一下女子水手隊。平均每周訓練18個小時,游泳75英里,這些運動員肌肉發達。但是,和史前女農民相比,這些運動員可以說沒有什么臂力。因為一項新研究表明,基于上臂力量,新石器時代女性把現代女性——甚至是精英運動員——遠遠甩在后面。這項研究結果發表在《科學進展》期刊上。

  這項調查的研究人員此前調查過史前男性的骨骼。因為骨骼與他們的負重相適應,所以可以提供個體經常參與活動的記錄。因此,在農業初始時期,男性的腿骨就像現在的越野跑運動員那樣強壯。但到了鐵器時代末期,他們的腿骨看起來和普通電視迷的腿骨更像。

  “這種情況與人類隨著時間的推移久坐時間增加、活動量減少相匹配。”

  艾莉森·麥金托什說到,她在劍橋大學讀本科期間參與了這項研究。

  “但是我們沒有看到女性腿骨強度下降。她們的腿骨強度一直比男性低,隨著時間的推移并沒有發生明顯變化。因此,看起來女性從一開始就經常久坐。我們認為這很可能不一定是她們所做事情的準確表現。”

  現在人們通常認為,史前女性可能只是坐在那里無所事事、吃吃飯,就這樣度過了新石器時代。但是麥金托什認為那不太可能。相反,她和同事認為,男性骨骼和女性骨骼在承受壓力時的反應不同。因此,如今是博士后研究員的麥金托什和老團隊決定研究一下某些女性的四肢。

  她召集了18名冠軍槳手、11名足球運動員、17名賽跑運動員和37名不常運動的本科生。她掃描了她們的上臂和小腿。她發現,史前女性的腿骨強度變化無常,與現在的實驗對象一樣各有不同,實驗對象的范圍從馬拉松運動員到馬拉松式研究會議參與者。但是,史前女性的上臂則是另一回事。

  “我們發現,平均來說,史前女性的臂骨比大部分現存女性的都強壯。在耕種出現后約5500年以來一直如此。她們的臂骨甚至比槳手的還強壯。比如,生活在我們所研究時期最早期的女性,即約7000年前新石器時代早期的女性,她們的臂骨比如今非運動員的女性強壯30%,非運動員指在劍橋把運動當作娛樂的女性。史前女性的臂骨比現在的槳手要強壯16%。”

  這種力量最可能來自耕種土地、收割莊稼、每天花幾個小時用石器時代的杵和臼研磨谷物制成面粉。這項研究揭示了古代女性的日常職責——完全是苦差事的體力勞動。

  謝謝大家收聽科學美國人——60秒科學。我是凱倫·霍普金。

  重點講解:

  1. adapt to 適應;

  例句:We must adapt to a changing world, not defend outdated models.

  我們必須適應不斷變化的世界,而不是捍衛過時的模式。

  2. sit around 閑坐著;無所事事;

  例句:Eve isn't the type to sit around doing nothing.

  伊芙不是那種喜歡坐在那里無所事事的人。

  3. running the gamut 涉及…的全部范圍;

  例句:Machine learning uses run the gamut from game playing to fraud detection to stock-market analysis.

  機器學習可以應用于各種目的,從游戲、欺詐檢測到股票市場分析。

  4. engage in 參與;從事;

  例句:It gives students a chance to engage in the creative process.

  它們為學生提供了一個參與創造性過程的機會。

  5. shed light on 使(某事)顯得非常清楚;使人了解(某事) ;

  例句:Uponthe new experiment may shed light on how animals respond to dangers.

  新實驗將有可能揭示動物是如何應對危險的。

  以上就是關于托福聽力科學美國人60秒——古代女性臂力驚人的詳細內容,希望大家能從中受益,不斷改進自己的備考方法提升備考效率,從而獲得滿意的成績。更多備考信息請登錄英皇留學考試網站或撥打考試熱線0951-6890199咨詢,祝大家都能早日夢圓名校。

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