咨詢熱線 :0951-8936555
當前位置:英皇>> 留學考試 >>雅思考試 >> 正文


發布日期:2020-7-20 閱讀量:441


  This is Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'mKaren Hopkin.

  Picture a women's crew team. Training 18 hours andcovering 75 miles in an average week, theseathletes are pretty ripped. Yet they don't hold abicep to prehistoric female farmers. Because a newstudy shows that, based on upper arm strength, theNeolithic ladies leave modern women—even elite athletes—in the dust. The work appears in thejournal Science Advances.

  The study's researchers had previously examined the bones of prehistoric men. Becausebones adapt to the load they bear, they can provide a record of the sort of activities in whichan individual regularly engages. So, at the dawn of agriculture, men's leg bones were strong, like today's cross-country runners. But by the late Iron Age, their leg bones looked more likethat of the average couch potato.

  "So this kind of matched with declines in mobility as people became more sedentary throughtime."

  Alison Macintosh, who did that work when she was an undergraduate student in archaeologyat the University of Cambridge.

  "But we didn't see these drops in women. Their leg bone strength was consistently lower thanmen's, it didn't change significantly through time. So really the women just looked quitesedentary pretty much right from the get-go. And we didn't think that was very probablynecessarily a very accurate representation of what they had been doing."



  Now, it could be that prehistoric housewives sat around and lunched their way through theNeolithic. But Macintosh thought that unlikely. Instead, she and her colleagues figured that thebones of men and women react differently under pressure. So Macintosh, now a postdoctoralfellow with the same group, decided to look at the limbs of some ladies.

  She recruited 18 championship rowers, 11 soccer players, 17 runners and 37 somewhat lesssporty undergrads. And she scanned their upper arms and lower legs. What she found is thatthe leg bone strength of prehistoric women was as variable as that of her living subjects, running the gamut from those who run marathons to those who engage in marathon studysessions. But the arms were a different story.

  "We found that prehistoric women had stronger arm bones on average than most livingwomen. That was pretty consistent through the first 5,500 years of farming or so. So this waseven stronger than the arm bones of the rowers. So for example women in the earliest timeperiod that we looked at, which is the early Neolithic period about 7,000 years ago, they hadarm bones that were 30 percent stronger than non-athletes today, so just recreationally activewomen in Cambridge. And they're about 16 percent stronger bones than those of the livingrowers."

  That power most likely came from tilling the soil, harvesting crops, and spending hours a daymilling grain to make flour with a stone-age mortar and pestle. The findings shed light on thedaily duties of our female ancestors—manual labor that was a total grind.

  Thanks for listening for Scientific American — 60-Second Science. I'm Karen Hopkin.













  1. adapt to 適應;

  例句:We must adapt to a changing world, not defend outdated models.


  2. sit around 閑坐著;無所事事;

  例句:Eve isn't the type to sit around doing nothing.


  3. running the gamut 涉及…的全部范圍;

  例句:Machine learning uses run the gamut from game playing to fraud detection to stock-market analysis.


  4. engage in 參與;從事;

  例句:It gives students a chance to engage in the creative process.


  5. shed light on 使(某事)顯得非常清楚;使人了解(某事) ;

  例句:Uponthe new experiment may shed light on how animals respond to dangers.





今晚有哪四肖中特 合买彩票赚钱 网上麻将真钱下载 广西淘宝快3走势图 彩经网旧版七乐彩走势图代选号的 足球任选9场开奖 一码中特官方网 双色球和值走势图网易 体彩p5遗漏表 福彩3d出号走势图 股票交易界面 王者捕鱼app下载游戏 15选5历史奖金 MG招财鞭炮_破解版下载 彩票公司开发 云南11选5开奖结果查询 快乐赛车开奖结果