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美國留學簽證三大類型

發布日期:2017-3-19 閱讀量:2010


  Types of US Student Visa

  If you’re planning to study abroad in the US – either for a full degree or a shorter period – you’ll need to apply for a US student visa. Here’s a quick guide to the three types of non-immigrant student visas for studying in the US.

  美國學生簽證類型:

  如果你計劃去美國留學——無論是選擇全日制學位專業學習,還是短期學習——你都需要申請美國學生簽證。下面是三種不同類型的美國學生簽證的簡單介紹,希望能夠對你所有幫助。

  F Visa

  This type of US student visa is for international students who are intending to pursue an academic degree at an accredited US college or university, or to study English at a university or intensive English language institute. There are three types of F visa:

  F-1 visas for full-time students.

  F-2 visas for dependents of F-1 visa holders (spouse and unmarried children under the age of 21). This includes same-sex married couples.

  F-3 visas for ‘border commuters’ – Mexican and Canadian students who reside in their country of origin while attending part- or full-time school in the US.

  Students with F-1 visas can work on-campus for 20 hours a week or less. Students wishing to work longer hours and off-campus must gain prior authorization from the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) – they may also grant work authorization for Curricular Practical Training (CPT) and Optional Practical Training (OPT) for a total of twelve months, without accruing more than 90 days of unemployment.

  F簽證:

  這個類型的美國學生簽證,適用于在公認的美國學院或者大學追求學術學位專業學習的國際學生,或者是在某大學或者是強化英語語言機構參加英語學習的國際學生。F簽證又可以細分成三個類型:

  F-1簽證適用于全日制學生;

  F-2簽證適用于F-1簽證持有者的非獨立人員(配偶或者是21歲以下未結婚的孩子),這也包括同性夫妻;

  F-3簽證適用于邊境國家的通勤學生——居住在自己的原籍國,但是在美國學校進行全日制或者非全日制學習的墨西哥加拿大學生。

  獲得F-1簽證的學生每一個星期可以在校內工作最多20個小時,想要工作更長時間或者是想要在校外工作的話,必須從美國公民及移民服務局(USCIS)獲得預先核淮——他們也可能會授予總計為期12個月的課程實踐訓練(CPT)以及選擇性實踐訓練(OPT)的工作許可,累計的未雇傭時間不能夠超過90天。

  M visa

  The second category of US student visa is for international students who want to engage in non-academic or vocational study or training at an institution in the US. There are three types of M visa:

  M-1 visas for students engaging in vocational or non-academic studies.

  M-2 visas for dependents of M-1 visa holders (as in F-2 visas).

  M-3 visas for ‘border commuters’ as in F-3 visas, but for vocational or non-academic studies.

  M-1 students are admitted to the US for a fixed time period – the length of their training program plus any Optional Practical Training. They must not stay in the US for longer than one year except in the case of extensions due to medical reasons. M-1 visa holders are not allowed to work on- or off-campus while studying and may not change their status to F-1.

  M簽證:

  第二種類型的美國學生簽證——M簽證——適用于想要在美國學校參加非學術性或者是職業學習或訓練的國際學生。M簽證也可以細分成三種類型:

  M-1簽證適用于進行職業或者非學術性學習的學生;

  M-2簽證適用于M-1簽證持有者的非獨立人員(如同F-2簽證適用范圍);

  M-3簽證適用于邊境國家的通勤學生——居住在自己的原籍國,但是在美國學校進行職業或者非學術性學習的墨西哥和加拿大學生(如同F-3)。

  M-1學生進入美國學校進行固定時間的學習——他們訓練專業的時間長度加上任何可選擇的實踐訓練。他們在美國停留的時間不能夠超過1年,除了因為醫學原因延長學習時間的情況。M-1簽證不允許學生在學習期間進行任何的校內或者校外工作,并且可能不能夠改變其簽證狀態到F-1簽證。

  J visa

  Finally, this third type of US student visa is for international exchange visitors participating in programs in the US that promote cultural exchange. Whether it is to obtain medical, business or other training, all applicants must meet the eligibility criteria of the program in question and be sponsored by a private sector or government program. Holders of J visas usually stay in the US for a short period of time, perhaps one or two semesters. There are two types of J visa:

  J-1 visas for exchange students on a relevant exchange program.

  J-2 visas for dependents of J-1 visa holders (as for F-2 visas)

  J-1 visa holders will be subject to the two-year home-country physical presence (foreign residence) requirement if they are part of a government-funded exchange program, doing graduate medical educational or training or if their training is listed in the Exchange Visitor Skills list (i.e. the J-1 visa holder’s home-country has deemed their field of specialized knowledge or skills as necessary to the development of the country). This requirement means J-1 visa holders will need to return to their home country for at least two years at the end of their exchange visitor program.

  J簽證:

  最后,美國學生簽證的第三種類型就是J簽證——適用于為了促進文化交流,在美國學校進行交流訪問的國際學生。無論學生是否獲得醫學、商科或者其他訓練,所有的申請者都必須滿足該交流項目的資格標準,并且獲得一個私人機構或者政府項目的贊助。J類簽證持有者通常可以在美國停留很短的一段時間,也許是一個學期或者兩個學期。J類簽證也可以細分成兩種類型:

  J-1簽證適用于相關交流項目中的交換生;

  J-2簽證適用于J-1簽證持有者的非獨立人員(正如F-2簽證)。

  J-1簽證持有者如果是政府資助交流項目的參與者,并且進行研究生醫學教育或者訓練的話;或者是他們的訓練列在交流訪問技能清單(例如J-1簽證持有者的原籍國已經認定他們的專業知識或者技能領域對于國家發展有很大需要)的話,那么有一個兩年的原籍國實體存在要求。這個要求意味著J-1簽證持有者在結束其交流訪問項目之后,將需要返回其原籍國至少兩年。

  Derivative visas

  Holders of F-2, M-2 and J-2 visas are also allowed to study in the US provided they meet their chosen institution’s criteria. They do not have to apply for an F-1, M-1 or J-1 visa, but can apply if qualified.

  J-2 visa holders can enroll as recreational or degree-seeking students, either full- or part-time, and discontinue their program at any time. They can also petition for a change to F-1 student status if they haven’t completed their academic program by the time the principle J-1’s status has ended. However, this is only if the J-1 visa holder is not subject to the two-year home residency requirement.

  F-2 and M-visa holders are not allowed to work, and must secure an appropriate work visa if seeking employment. J-2 visa holders may request work authorization from USCIS by submitting form I-765.

  衍生簽證:

  F-2、M-2以及J-2簽證持有者如果滿足所選美國學校的入學標準的話,也可以在美國進行學習。他們不需要申請F-1、M-1或者J-1簽證,但是如果符合要求的話,也可以申請。

  J-2簽證持有者可以作為娛樂或者學位追求學生,參加全日制或者非全日制學習,并且在任何時候終止自己的學習。他們也可以申請更改至F-1簽證狀態,如果他們在J-1簽證結束時,沒有完成自己的學術專業的話。但是,這僅限于J-1簽證持有者沒有兩年原籍國居住要求的情況。

  F-2以及M-簽證持有者不能夠留學期間工作,如果想要尋找雇傭機會的話,必須獲得適合的工作簽證。J-2簽證持有者需要通過遞交I-765表格從美國公民及移民服務局(USCIS)獲得工作許可。

 

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